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Navigating Canada's Demographic Shifts: The Interplay of Immigration and Economic Stability


Robert Tavares

May 17, 2024 - 17:29 pm


Canada’s Population Growth: An Economical Balancing Act

The landscape of Canada's population has been dynamically evolving in recent years, largely influenced by substantial immigration levels. These changes have presented both opportunities and challenges from an economic standpoint. With the onset of various economic pressures, public attitudes towards immigration have undergone a notable shift, prompting the government to take measures that have reverberated across the landscape of population management.

Immigration as a Lever in Economic Strategy

Immigration has been a cornerstone of Canadian policy in mitigating some economic issues associated with the country's aging demographics. Carrie Freestone, an economist at the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC), underlines the significant effects of these demographic shifts. In a recent report, she articulates how Canada's robust approach to welcoming immigrants has served not only to alleviate the financial burdens of an aging populace, but also to inject vibrancy into the workforce.

Freestone's report, released on Wednesday, delves into the complexity of public attitudes towards immigration, now leading to concrete policy changes. These shifts manifest in actions such as the introduction of a cap on non-permanent residents and restrictions on international student permits, according to BNN Bloomberg. These policy initiatives are, in part, a reaction to the soaring costs of housing in the country, an issue exacerbated by rapid population growth.

Within her detailed analysis, Freestone emphasizes immigration as a traditional tactic aimed at decelerating the aging rhythm of Canada's population. She notes, "Immigration has historically been envisioned as a strategic buffer to pace the population aging."

Additionally, she underscores the repercussions of a shrinking immigration influx over the long run. As the population advances in age—exemplified by the increasing share of those over 65—Freestone warns of enduring economic downturns. The vast cohort of the 'baby boom' generation is transitioning into retirement, which multiplies the population segment that the workforce must support.

The Consequences of Capping Immigration

In her insights, Freestone projects that the current restrictions on non-permanent residents could significantly slow down Canada's population growth. By 2027, she surmises that the population might be at least 2.5 percent smaller than what it could have achieved without such restrictions.

However, it's not all about limitations and downsizing. Even with the newly implemented immigration caps, Canada's population is on an upward trajectory. In fact, the migration rate into Canada is nearly double that of its neighbor, the United States. This means that, relative to other nations, the impact on Canadian financials from an aging population is expected to be less severe, largely thanks to the sustained influx of migrants.

Freestone touches on the broader economic implications of an aging population. An imbalance is poised to emerge—between the outputs of the economy and the demands of its consumers. This tilt may exacerbate structural labor shortfalls, contribute to escalated price pressures, and foster an environment of structurally higher interest rates.

The challenges do not cease here. An older population sets in motion a growing divide in public funding: while income tax revenue stumbles, the demand for essential services, most notably healthcare, surges as the population collectively ages.

The Duality of Demographic Economics

The intricacies of Canada's demographic shift shed light on a duality. On one hand, the migration into the country props up the labor market, eases the pressure of supporting an aging society, and stimulates economic activity. On the other, when not managed judiciously, it may lead to unanticipated strains on the country's housing market and other public resources.

These demographic currents stimulate a reevaluation of Canada’s economic projections and policy structures. Freestone's report exemplifies a growing awareness of the balance between welcoming new residents and judiciously planning for the sustainability of the nation's economic future.

Politicians, economists, and the public alike are grappling with these decisions, which will delineate the boundaries of Canada's economic landscape for years to come. As policymakers attempt to navigate these choppy waters, high levels of immigration remain an essential element of the equation, even as they attract scrutiny and contention in equal measure.

Housing Affordability at the Forefront

A pronounced concern steering the discourse on immigration is housing affordability. As Canada grapples with escalating home prices and a strained housing market, the question becomes one of balance: how can the country continue to prosper from the economic benefits of immigration while also ensuring that its current and future residents have access to affordable living?

The introduction of caps on temporary migrants and international students reflects a direct response to the housing issue. Freestone articulates that while these measures may offer temporary relief for the housing market, the long-term economic costs may be profound.

Canada must weigh these short-term solutions against the potential for lasting economic side effects. The diminishment in the pace of population growth, albeit a possible short-term balm for the housing sector, could ripple through the workforce and beyond, impacting the social and economic fabric of the nation.

Retirement and Workforce Dynamics

The report also delves into the dynamics between the retiring population and the active workforce. As baby boomers step back from their professional roles, a void is being created that needs to be filled by younger, skilled workers. Immigration, therefore, is not merely a matter of bolstering numbers but is crucial to infusing the labor market with vitality and expertise.

This demographic transition influences how the economy behaves, notably in terms of price pressures and the demand for specific skills. Higher price pressures can trigger inflation, affecting everything from the cost of living to the valuation of currency. Furthermore, if the workforce cannot meet the demands for certain skills, it could lead to a stagnating economy with potential labor shortages in critical sectors.

The Role of Governmental Fiscal Policy

Freestone’s insights also bring to light the intersection between an aging population and fiscal policy. As the government navigates the challenges of an older demographic, the pressure to fund services, particularly healthcare, intensifies. This is juxtaposed with a potential deceleration in income tax revenue as the working-age population shrinks relative to retirees.

Finding sustainable solutions to this looming fiscal gap will demand creativity and foresight from Canadian policymakers. The roles of taxation, public service provision, and infrastructural development are all part and parcel of the dialogue.

As the population gets older, it is imperative that the economic strategies evolve in tandem, ensuring that the quality of life for all citizens remains at the heart of economic planning.

Embracing a Future Shaped by Demography

Canada's demographic landscape is an evolving tapestry that will continue to shape the nation's socioeconomic prospects well into the future. The blend of policies affecting immigration levels, such as the cap on non-permanent residents and limitations on international student permits, are testament to the nation's responsiveness to shifts in the public's sentiment and economic challenges.

While immigration will continue to feed into the cycle of population renewal and economic vigor, it will be accompanied by the need for strategic thinking around integration and resource allocation. The aging population is a phenomenon facing countries around the globe, and how each nation chooses to address this issue could set the course for their economic trajectory for decades ahead.

Conclusion: Balancing Growth with Sustainability

The Canadian narrative around population growth, aging, and immigration emphasizes the need for a fine-tuned balance between embracing the economic advantages of immigration and ensuring sustainable growth across all sectors. With eyes set on the horizon, policymakers are charged with the complex task of weaving demographic change into the fabric of Canada’s future prosperity.

As debates continue around the impact of immigration on housing affordability and the broader economy, it is apparent that these discussions are about more than just numbers; they are about shaping a resilient economy that can withstand the challenges of the future while providing inclusive prosperity for all its inhabitants.

In the end, the aim is multifaceted: enhancing the workforce with new talent and energy, preserving the quality of life for the aging population, and maintaining the stability and growth of the Canadian economy. The solutions will not be one-dimensional but will require a comprehensive approach where demographic trends are part and parcel of the national economic agenda.

Freestone’s report, and others like it, serve as the guiding lights in this crucial conversation on immigration and economy, signaling the way forward for a nation at the crux of significant demographic transformation. As Canada continues to navigate these waters, it does so with the understanding that the essence of strength lies in the ability to adapt and plan for the demographic realities of tomorrow.

Read the full report from Carrie Freestone at RBC here. For updates on the cap on non-permanent residents and the limits on international study permits, visit BNN Bloomberg.